Industrialization and global integration create humanity's greatest changes since the Neolithic Revolution.
Key Concept 5.1 — The process of industrialization changed the way in which goods were produced and consumed, with far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture.
Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced. A variety of factors that led to the rise of industrial production and eventually resulted in the Industrial Revolution included:
Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean
The geographical distribution of coal, iron, and timber
European demographic changes
Improved agricultural productivity
Legal protection of private property
An abundance of rivers and canals
Access to foreign resources
The accumulation of capital
The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to take advantage of vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, speci cally coal and oil. The fossil fuels revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and precision machinery during the second half of the 19th century. There were major developments and innovations in transportation and communication, including railroads, steamships, telegraphs, and canals.
New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in commercial extraction of natural resources and the production of food and industrial crops. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods. The rapid development of steam-powered industrial production in European countries and the U.S. contributed to the increase in these regions’ share of global manufacturing during the First Industrial Revolution. While Middle Eastern and Asian countries continued to produce manufactured goods, their share in global manufacturing declined. The global economy of the 19th century expanded dramatically from the previous period due to increased exchanges of raw materials and finished goods in most parts of the world. Trade in some commodities was organized in a way that gave merchants and companies based in Europe and the U.S. a distinct economic advantage.
To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses that relied on various financial instruments.
The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves, often in labor unions, to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages. Workers’ movements and political parties emerged in different areas, promoting alternative visions of society, including Marxism. In response to the expansion of industrializing states, some governments in Asia and Africa, such as the Ottoman Empire and Qing China, sought to reform and modernize their economies and militaries. Reform efforts were often resisted by some members of government or established elite groups. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. In response to the social and economic changes brought about by industrial capitalism, some governments promoted various types of political, social, educational, and urban reforms.
The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to a variety of challenges.
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Lecture on economic effects of the Industrial Revolution:
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Lecture on Russian & Japanese state-sponsored industrialization:
Lecture on Industrialization & Imperialism in the Ottoman Empire:
Key Concept 5.2 — As states industrialized, they also expanded existing overseas empires and established new colonies and transoceanic relationships. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires. States with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies. European states as well as the United States and Japan, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined. Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to expand their empires in Africa. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies. Industrialized states practiced neocolonialism in Latin America and economic imperialism in some parts of the world. In some imperial societies, emerging cultural, religious, and racial ideologies, including social Darwinism, were used to justify imperialism. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. The United States, Russia, and Japan expanded their land borders by conquering and settling neighboring territories. Anti-imperial resistance took various forms, including direct resistance within empires and the creation of new states on the peripheries.
Lecture on social & economic causes/effects of industrialized imperialism:
Lecture on settlement colonies & definitions related to imperialism:
Lecture on "tropical dependencies":
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Lecture on Japanese political changes:
Lecture on Russian political & social changes:
Lecture on the impacts of Industrialization & Imperialism in China:
Key Concept 5.3 — The 18th century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, leading to the establishment of new nation-states around the world.
The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded revolutions and rebellions against existing governments. Enlightenment philosophies applied new ways of understanding and empiricist approaches to both the natural world and human relationships, encouraging observation and inferencein all spheres of life; they also reexamined the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation. Other Enlightenment philosophies developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract. The ideas of Enlightenment philosophers, as reflected in revolutionary documents— including the American Declaration of Independence, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and Bolívar’s Jamaica Letter—influenced resistance to existing political authority, often in pursuit of independence and democratic ideals. Enlightenment ideas influenced various reform movements that challenged existing notions of social relations, which contributed to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and/or the end of serfdom.
Beginning in the 18th century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs, and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea of nationalism to unite diverse populations. In some cases, nationalists challenged boundaries or sought unification of fragmented regions.
Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements. Subjects challenged centralized imperial governments. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions— including the American Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, and the Latin American independence movements—that facilitated the emergence of independent states in the U.S., Haiti, and mainland Latin America. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements. Some of the rebellions were influenced by diverse religious ideas.
The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of various ideologies, including democracy, liberalism, socialism, and communism. Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies.
Lecture on "the Enlightenment":
Lecture on defining "nationalism" & 19th-century European political ideologies:
Lecture comparing the French & American revolutions:
Lecture on Latin American revolutions:
Lecture on Haitian & Brazilian revolutions:
Lecture on rebellions in China & the Ottoman Empire:
Key Concept 5.4 — As a result of the emergence of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy, migration patterns changed dramatically, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly.
Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demographics in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population in both urban and rural areas. Because of the natureof the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the 19th century. The new methods of transportation also allowed for many migrants to return, periodically or permanently, to their home societies.
Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons. Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor.
The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the 19th century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations. Migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world that helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders.